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Porcelain Badge

Porcelain badge

 

 

Chinese Porcelain industry has a long history. Porcelain is shining pearl in Chinese art item. Exquisite Chinese porcelain enjoys a high reputation in the world. China is the world-renowned Porcelain ancient country. Chinese porcelain’s beautiful and colorful patterns, solid and delicate Taizhi , shiny enamel and other feature makes Chinese porcelain loved by the people all over the world. In the eyes of foreigners, “China” has another meaning,  that is “porcelain ". In history of collection in the world, Chinese Porcelain occupies an important position.

At beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong’s badge was about 10mm in diameter made in aluminum, then slowly emerged the badge in plastic, Porcelain, bamboo, glass and other materials. It is well known that Mao’s badge in Porcelains is considered as a special varieties. Porcelains is hard to keep and is fragile; all these make Mao’s badge in Porcelain particularly valuable. Because Mao’s Porcelain badge is exquisite detail and production process is complex, so this type of Porcelain badge is called rare arts in badge and they are loved by badge collectors of all ages.

Production of Porcelain badge made this traditional national craft being fully demonstrated and developed. Porcelain badge, comparing all other varieties of Mao’s badge, its picture is of natural real, rich colors, and resistant to wear, and other fine features. Compared to Porcelain products in the form of cans, bottles, pots, plates, cups, bowls and other utensils, Porcelain badge is easy carrying and storage. Classifying Mao’s Porcelains badge as special category in collection and appreciation also has its special significance.

Because it is Porcelain products, over time, they must be a very valuable, even just in the view of art collection.

 

First, the major producer of Porcelains badge

Producers of Mao’s Porcelain badge are throughout many porcelain production areas in China. In production, quality, variety, color,  Jingdezhen in Jiangxi, Fujian Dehua, Liling, Hunan Changsha Jianxiang Porcelain Factory ( Mao Zedong's hometown is located, is also one of the first Porcelain badge manufacturers ) , Tangshan in Hebei are best known. At that time, a large number of artisans and painting of porcelain technology, calligrapher, porcelain carving masters are concentrated to produce Mao’s badge. Zibo in Shandong, Qingyuan in Guangdong, Qingdao in Shandong, Xuanhua in Hebei, Baotou in Inner Mongolia, Lanxi in Zhejiang  were obvious rival. Acid Plant in Shenyang in Liaoning, Fengxi Pottery Factory in Guangdong, Huizhou Porcelain Factory in Shandong, Wuxi Limin Cichang in Jiangsu were next.

1, Porcelain badge produced in Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen 's badge, exquisite in pattern, new in design, fine workmanship, solid in Taizhi, fine texture, white translucent, enamel shiny, color rich, is praised as best in modern Chinese Porcelains. Its distinctive artistic charm has long been the concern of collectors of Mao’s badges. It is said that while production of special porcelain for Chairman Mao, but also with the same kind of high purity clay, produced a number of fine badges which is characterized by extremely delicate, moist and transparent and the process is relatively sophisticated, and some were decorated with gold at edge. Some set badges among them have become treasures in fine Porcelain badge. Some of the top grade boutique among these porcelain badges produced in Jingdezhen, especially some works from famous expert, are as good as fine porcelain produced in Republican era.

At that time people from many provinces and regions, many sectors ordered Porcelain badges produced in Jingdezhen. Even if there is no signature of Jingdezhen on the back of the badge, collectors can easily recognize if that badge was produced by factory in Jingdezhen or not. Huge in production volume and variety, Porcelain badges in Jingdezhen ranked first well-deserved badge of all Porcelain badge,  and deeply favored by collectors.

2, Porcelain badge produced in Dehua, Fujian

Porcelain badge produced in Dehua, using high quality kaolin  clay through more than a dozen steps,  was carefully made. So it is crystal moist, like fat jade and it is of particularly white porcelain body, good in glaze combination, high transmittance. It enjoys a high reputation in Mao Zedong badge collection industry. Pictures involved cover Mao Zedong from 17 till 79 at age and it also covers body image, bust , standard head, left and right image, etc. and color or black and white photography, painting and the like. The front portion of some badge is with printing paper in different patterns; some patterns were being printed up. They are marvelous. On the back of vast majority badge has a standardized text. A small amount of porcelain badge are without any text, but they were really produced in that factory.

During "Cultural Revolution " , there were only four porcelain factories in Dehua: Dehua porcelain, Dehua Xinjian porcelain factory, people Dehua porcelain, Dehua Xunzhong Gongshe porcelain. From early 1968 to late 1969, these four factories tried dozens of new varieties of Porcelains badges and many of which are fine, some are solitary, not formally produced. These badge recently has attracted attention of collectors, economic value and collection value keep escalating.

3, Porcelain badge produced in Liling

Liling’s  badge is nationally known for novel design, a clear pattern, bright, Yun Ying in porcelain body, white and delicate, rich in content, specifications consistent, no way inferior to Jingdezhen’s Porcelains badge. Unique design and meaning deeply in set badge,

make its set badge fondle admiringly. Especially its idea of black and white patterns, is much lovely. Badge of Mao produced in Liling has been publicly recognized as treasures In Mao Zedong badge collection industry.

Few people who currently really recognize the value of Liling Porcelain badge and very few people are willing to collect common Porcelain badges produced there. some scattered badge probably is one of precious set badge, series badge or identification of badge.

4,  Porcelain badge produced in Tangshan

Among the badge produced in Tangshan, there are conventional monochrome badge, but also top grade color spray, paint color badge. It features with innovative design, pure white in Porcelain body, unified specifications. Many of them can be called superior for purpose of collections. Background Ingredients and hook decorative at edge of Tangshan’s Porcelain badge are also very particular in which both white glaze and color glaze were used. For color glaze, yellow, blue, red, pink were used or two or three kinds of colors with the use together. Most badges have crochet, mainly single and double Phnom Penh. In the “Oceans of Red” in the Cultural Revolution, the artisans used green, yellow, black and other colors, so that characters are as vivid as real people. This was not easy at the time. Porcelain badge produced in Tangshan is currently the least amount of surviving .Because of this, it is very difficult to get Tangshan’s Porcelain badge and meanwhile manifest Tangshan’s Porcelain badge’s preciousness.

Mass production of Porcelain badge in Tangshan was almost two years later than Jingdezhen, Dehua , Liling , Jianxiang , Zibo. But it started with high quality and more gifts. Started from mid- 1968 and finished at mid-1969, only less than a year, and therefore less in quantity and variety. Author estimates that there are just over 200 varieties. And during Tangshan earthquake in 1976, almost all Porcelain items were buried or crushed by completely collapsed houses. Later, when cleaning up the rubble, dug up some occasionally, but the perfect is few . Considering natural wear and tear for 30 years, therefore it is estimated that survive does not exceed thousands of pieces.

5, Porcelain badge produced in Zibo

Porcelain badge produced in Zibo is famous for its unique design, Innovative design, writing clear, bright, white and delicate in porcelain body. I have witnessed an exquisite set badge. The biggest one was 70mm in diameter, front of the badge was color photos of Chairman Mao in military uniform, smiling and amiable. Below of the badge was Chairman Mao’s poetry "Qingping yue Liupan Mountain”. Another two, diameter, 64mm, were respectively reference pictures of  Chairman Mao handwritten poem "Qingping yue, Jiang Gui war " and " Yiqin E Loushanguan ." On the back of the badge, with the words “the great leader Chairman Mao Memorial seventy-five birthday, 1893.12.26-1968.12.26, Shandong Zibo Porcelain Factory Revolutionary Committee," and so on. This set badge,  compared with the conventional porcelain badge, surface smoother, more vibrant colors, and with Phnom Penh, looked elegant and beautiful, yet simple decency. Caoti handwriting font written by Mao is majestic, romantic chic, vigorous and forceful. With exquisite carving art,  Artists  skillfully combined photographs, picture, calligraphy and vividly recreated the glorious image of Chairman Mao in different periods, it reached a very high realm of art . They were very beautiful and unique.

 

Second classification of Porcelain badge

1, from colored pattern: white porcelain in the background ( substrate ),   Head pattern  is divided into two major categories :color and monochrome. Color badge, some colorful, some bright shine.  Some of the badge, the outermost circle hook Phnom Penh. For monochrome badge, some are simple and generous, some are clear in levels. Color of Porcelain badge is complex than any material badge. There are dozens of color.  So watching the colorful Porcelain badge is really enjoyable.

2, from character modeling: head, bust, body image; life picture, image in working, portrait, image in military uniforms, image in uniform, image in plain clothes ; image wearing a hat ( military cap and straw hat ), image of holding a hat and so on.

3, from direction of the head: on the left , on the right, positive image.

 

Third, production process of Porcelain badge

Porcelain badge artisans made Porcelain badge by choosing formula of high-quality porcelain clay, using advanced technological process.

So its scale of production and quality of product are unparalleled. Especially the badge crafted by using high- brightness porcelain make Mao’s image delicate and perfect, especially in backdrop of high white jade porcelain. It is a rare art treasures.

 

Fourth, judgments of Porcelains badge in quality

The author summed up seven criteria in the years of collection of Porcelain badges:

1, front: no fine pores. Pores mostly result from impurities entering the raw materials during firing process or the environment was contaminated. Badge with fine pore are mostly defective products.

2, no any deformation, out of shape, at least not positive deformation, allowing little deformed  on the back of the badge.

3, no cracks, no out of porcelain (called "collapse porcelain”), and other defects.

4, front pattern, no out of shape; if there are pictures of Shaoshan, Jinggangshan, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall and other auxiliary diagram at the bottom, the proportion of the main picture and auxiliary picture must be appropriate. Color coordination must looks beautiful, comfortable.

5, front pattern:  no fade, color cast, color drain.

6, if it is painted, then the pattern must be vivid, beautiful; closer to real picture, higher in grade; otherwise, the product is common one  or beneath contempt.

7, writing clear , well-proportioned; some with text or images blurred: defective products.

 

Five. Judgment of set badges, series badge, identification of badge

Based on years of collection, summed up 9 criteria in judgment of set badge, series badge , identification of badge

1, set badge, series badge, identification of badge, consist of a few specially designed badges which must describe a central element, or a particular historical theme or a major historical event. For example: Mao on the Long March, Mao’s image in different periods, Mao received the Red Guards, forever faithful to Chairman Mao, Mao Zedong’s image from youth to middle age to old age. The signature on the back of the badges may be the national government or a provincial or People's Liberation Army troops, or a factory , or a sector.

2, Set badge, series badge, the number must be at least three or more (including three ). There is 28 pieces for a set badge I have ever witness; 18 pieces for a series badge. Identification of badge is limited to two.

3, the materials used must be the same. If it is badge in aluminum, everyone must be made of aluminum; if it is porcelain badge, all must be porcelain, and so on. As long as there is a badge made in different material, they are not considered as set badge, series badge, identification of badge.

4, set badge and  identification of badge, the back must follow the " six consistent ."  That means: production organization(release agency) consistent, consistent with the text, text font are identical, the text location consistent, pattern shape consistent, shape in sequence number consistent, if there are other tags, they must be consistent. Series badge is not strictly required.

5, set badge and  identification of badge, must have same style in production for each of the badges. So-called production style, referring to the idea of designers, techniques and characteristics to be consistent. Such as there is sun as background behind the head, or deputy pattern at the bottom of the badge protruding towards both sides, or have high relief portrait design, or at lower portion of the badge there is a piece of Mao’s poetry, or, there is an inscription at the bottom, or at bottom there is a picture of place where Mao worked, there is a red flag on the back of the head, and so on. Series badge is not strictly required.

6, there is certain correlation among each one in set badge in the contents. That is, previous badge and a badge after should mutually support on the content or relying on each other on the order. For example, according to Mao Zedong's revolutionary sites, 5 badges of a set badge in 5, from first to fifth is in strict accordance with order of the time or historical events. Order of these pictures are: Shaoshan, Jinggangshan, Zunyi, Yan'an, Tiananmen Square, one by one. Seven badges of  a set badge in 7, from the first to the seventh is strictly in accordance with the order of the time or the order of historical events. Order of these pictures are: Shaoshan, First Conference of Communist Party, Jinggangshan, Gutian, Zunyi, Yan'an, Tiananmen Square. Series badge and Identification of badge is not strictly required.

7, set badge, the modelling to be consistent. In general, if it is round, each of set badge is circle, and so on. Allowing circle and other shape ( shaped, oval, round, etc.) appear in combination, but overall consistency must be good, feels aesthetically pleasing appearance. Series badge and Identification of badge are not strictly required.

8, set badge in Porcelain, there is no concept of the first one among them. Unlike set badge in aluminum that usually have a head badge (leading badge), slightly larger than other, the design is unique as well.

9, The arrangements of set badge must be in strict order.

Series badge, identification of badge is not strictly required.

 

For some set badge, in conformity with other standards, while not necessarily require full compliance with the " six consistent "  , but at least required to achieve the "three consistent ."

Among the author's collection of more than ten thousand pieces, only a handful of Set badge and ten sets for Series badge.

Analyzing and judging set badge, series badge, identification of badge is advanced stage in the collection, collation, research of Mao Zedong badge, but also best stage for economic benefits and highest stage of market popularity. Rate of return for pottery collection is quite high. Collection, judgment, arrangement of set badge are the most difficult. A pack of badges which is lack of one is not considered as set badge. Set badge’s requirement is the most stringent, the series badge is follow, and identification of badge is last.

 

The following shows a partial collection of Mao 's Porcelains badge from author

 

  

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In November 1919, Mao Zedong, Mao Zemin, Mao Tan and mother in Shaoshan, Hunan.

 

 

     

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In September 1922, Mao Zedong led the Anyuan miners strike (painting, Chairman Mao to Anyuan).

 

 

      

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In October 1925, Mao Zedong arrived in Guangzhou, as the KMT Central Agent propaganda minister.

 

 

        

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In April 1936, MAO Zedong in Shanbei Baoan.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In 1944, MAO Zedong in Yan'an.

 

 

        

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In April 1945, MAO Zedong in Yan'an.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In August 1945, Mao Zedong in Yan'an airport for flight chongqing negotiations.

 

 

  

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: On October 1, 1954, MAO zedong in celebration to mark the fifth anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China at the conference.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In March 1955, Mao Zedong opening address at the National Conference of the Communist Party of China.

 

 

   

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In May 1957, Mao Zedong in Beijing met with Chinese Communist Youth League, "the Third National People's Congress" some representatives.

 

 

     

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In August, 1958, MAO zedong Inspect henan xinxiang people's communes.

 

 

    

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In August 1966, MAO zedong met red guards the tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In 1966, MAO zedong tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

   

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In 1966, MAO zedong tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

    

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In August 1966, MAO zedong and Lin biao met red guards the tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In September 1966, MAO zedong tiananmen rostrum in Beijing met 1 million red guards.

 

 

  

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In October 1966, Mao Zedong, Lin Biao on Tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In November 1966, Mao Zedong on the Tiananmen rostrum in Beijing.

 

 

   

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: In October 1968, Mao zedong attended the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China twelfth plenary session (to expand).

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: MAO zedong met red guards the tiananmen rostrum in Beijing(engraving).

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: MAO zedong's early standard head (hand-drawn).

 

 

 

The patterns of the badge are drawn from the picture: The late Mao Zedong as standard (hand-drawn).