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China out of a Mao Zedong

China out of a Mao Zedong (1)

 

 

Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976), was a great proletarian revolutionary, strategist, strategist, philosopher, historian, calligrapher, foremost Chinese Communist leader of the 20th century and the principal founder of the People’s Republic of China.

 

1, Early life

Mao was born December 26, 1893, into a peasant family in the village of Shaoshan, Hunan province. His father was a strict disciplinarian and Mao frequently rebelled against his authority. Mao’s early education was in the Confucian classics of Chinese history, literature, and philosophy, but early teachers also exposed him to the ideas of progressive Confucian reformers such as K’ang Yu-wei. In 1911 Mao moved to the provincial capital, Changsha, where he briefly served as a soldier in Republican army in the 1911 revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty. While in Changsha, Mao read works on Western philosophy; he was also greatly influenced by progressive newspapers and by journals such as New Youth, founded by revolutionary leader Chen Duxiu.

In 1918, after graduating from the Hunan Teachers College in Changsha, Mao traveled to Beijing and obtained a job in the Beijing University library under the head librarian, Li Dazhao. Mao joined Li’s study group that explored Marxist political and social thought and he became an avid reader of Marxist writings. During the May Fourth Movement of 1919, when students and intellectuals called for China’s modernization, Mao published articles criticizing the traditional values of Confucianism. He stressed the importance of physical strength and mental willpower in the struggle against tradition.

 

Shaoshan Mao Zedong's former residence

 

In 1913, Mao zedong studied at Hunan provincial fourth Normal School

 

In May 1919, Mao Zedong and Hunan provincial first normal school Xiangtan Alumni photo (second row from left 3 Mao Zedong)

 

In May 1919, MAO zedong in Changsha

 

In November 1919, MAO zedong, Mao Zemin, MAO tan and her mother

 

 

2Founding the Communist Party of China

In 1920 Mao returned to Changsha, where his attempt to organize a democratic government for Hunan province failed. He traveled to Shanghai in 1921 and was present at the founding meeting of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which was also attended by Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu.

Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai.

The first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China was attended by 13 delegates, Mao included. After the authorities sent a police spy to the congress, the delegates moved to a boat on South Lake near Chiahsing to escape detection. Although Soviet and Comintern delegates attended, the first congress ignored Lenin's advice to accept a temporary alliance between the Communists and the "bourgeois democrats" who also advocated national revolution; instead they stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist revolution.

Mao was now party secretary for Hunan and stationed in Changsha, from which he went on a recruitment drive. In August 1921, he founded the Self-Study University, through which readers could gain access to revolutionary literature, housed in the premises of the Society for the Study of Wang Fuzhi. Taking part in the YMCA mass education movement to fight illiteracy, he opened a Changsha branch, though replaced the usual textbooks with revolutionary tracts in order to spread Marxism among the students.

 

In July 1921, MAO zedong attended the first national congress of the communist party of China (1 row left 5 MAO zedong)

 

Chinese Communist Party First National Congress of the Conference address (Shanghai Red House)

 

 

3, Chairman Mao goes to Anyuan

Mao founded a CCP branch in Hunan and organized workers’ strikes throughout the province. Mao's strategy for the successful and famous Anyuan coal mines strikes (contrary to later Party historians) depended on both "proletarian" and "bourgeois" strategies. The success depended on innovative organizing by Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan who not only mobilised the miners, but formed schools and cooperatives. They also engaged local intellectuals, gentry, military officers, merchants, Red Gang dragon heads and church clergy in support.

 

In September, 1922, Chairman Mao goes to Anyuan(oil painting)

 

 

4, Collaboration with the Kuomintang

At the Third Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai in June 1923, the delegates reaffirmed their commitment to working with the KMT against the Beiyang government and imperialists. Supporting this position, Mao was elected to the Party Committee, taking up residence in Shanghai.

Attending the First KMT Congress, held in Guangzhou in early 1924, Mao was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralise power to urban and rural bureaus. His enthusiastic support for the KMT earned him the suspicion of some Communists.

He returned to Guangzhou to run the 6th term of the KMT's Peasant Movement Training Institute from May to September 1926. He also served as the director of its propaganda department and edited its Political Weekly newsletter.

Through the Peasant Movement Training Institute, Mao took an active role in organizing the revolutionary Hunanese peasants and preparing them for militant activity, taking them through military training exercises and getting them to study various left-wing texts.

In the winter of 1925, Mao fled to Guangzhou after his revolutionary activities attracted the attention of Zhao's regional authorities.

In March 1927, Mao appeared at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan, which sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing Wang Jingwei leader. There, Mao played an active role in the discussions regarding the peasant issue, defending a set of "Regulations for the Repression of Local Bullies and Bad Gentry", which advocated the death penalty or life imprisonment for anyone found guilty of counter-revolutionary activity, arguing that in a revolutionary situation, "peaceful methods cannot suffice".

In February, 1927, MAO zedong wrote "inspection report of the peasant movement in hunan".

Mao's famous theory: "Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another." ---- Mao, February 1927.

 

In May 1924, MAO zedong in Shanghai to attend the enlarged meeting of the central committee of the communist party of China executive committee

 

In October 1925, Mao Zedong arrived in Guangzhou, as the KMT Central Agent propaganda minister

 

In February, 1927, MAO zedong wrote "inspection report of the peasant movement in hunan"

 

 

5, Base in Jinggangshan

The CPC Central Committee, hiding in Shanghai, expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, as punishment for his "military opportunism", for his focus on rural activity, and for being too lenient with "bad gentry". They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers' councils, the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT. Mao's response was to ignore them.

He established base in Jinggangshan City, an area of the Jinggang Mountains, where he united five villages as a self-governing state, and supported the confiscation of land from rich landlords, who were "re-educated" and sometimes executed. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region, and pursued a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee.

He proclaimed that "Even the lame, the deaf and the blind could all come in useful for the revolutionary struggle", he boosted the army's numbers, incorporating two groups of bandits into his army, building a force of around 1,800 troops.

He laid down rules for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders, all confiscations were to be turned over to the government, and nothing was to be confiscated from poorer peasants. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force.

"When the enemy advances, we retreat.

When the enemy rests, we harass him.

When the enemy avoids a battle, we attack.

When the enemy retreats, we advance."

Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang, 1928.

 

In 1927, MAO zedong led the autumn harvest uprising troops advance jinggangshan (oil painting)

 

Main peak of the jinggang mountains

 

Main peak of the jinggang mountains

 

 

6, Zhu De and Mao Zedong in Jinggangshan realignment

In spring 1928, the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. Mao was skeptical, but complied. They reached Hunan, where they were attacked by the KMT and fled after heavy losses. Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base.

Wandering the countryside, Mao's forces came across a CPC regiment led by General Zhu De and Chen yi; they united, and attempted to retake Jinggangshan. They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains.

The Central Committee again ordered Mao to march to south Hunan, but he refused, and remained at his base. Contrastingly, Zhu complied, and led his armies away. Mao's troops fended the KMT off for 25 days while he left the camp at night to find reinforcements. He reunited with the decimated Zhu's army, and together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base. There they were joined by a defecting KMT regiment and Peng Dehuai's Fifth Red Army. In the mountainous area they were unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter.

Jiangxi Soviet Republic of China: 1929–1934.

 

April 1928, Zhu De and Mao Zedong in Jinggangshan realignment(painting)

 

December 10, 1928, Mao Zedong on the Jinggangshan meet Peng (oil painting)

 

 

7, Created the Soviet Government

Both Li Lisan and Mao saw the Chinese revolution as the key to world revolution, believing that a CPC victory would spark the overthrow of global imperialism and capitalism. In this, they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Officials in Moscow desired greater control over the CPC and removed Li from power by calling him to Russia for an inquest into his errors.

They replaced him with Soviet-educated Chinese Communists, known as the "28 Bolsheviks", two of whom, Bo Gu and Zhang Wentian, took control of the Central Committee. Mao disagreed with the new leadership, believing they grasped little of the Chinese situation, and he soon emerged as their key rival.

In February 1930, Mao created the Southwest Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government in the region under his control. The CPC Central Committee moved to Jiangxi which it saw as a secure area. In November it proclaimed Jiangxi to be the Soviet Republic of China, an independent Communist-governed state. Although he was proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, Mao's power was diminished, as his control of the Red Army was allocated to Zhou Enlai.

 

In June 1933, MAO zedong in the central Soviet area poor convention

 

 

8, Against the first, second "encirclement" campaign

The KMT armies adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation of the Red armies. Outnumbered, Mao responded with guerrilla tactics influenced by the works of ancient military strategists like Sun Tzu, but Zhou and the new leadership followed a policy of open confrontation and conventional warfare. In doing so, the Red Army successfully defeated the first and second encirclements.

Angered at his armies' failure, Chiang Kai-shek personally arrived to lead the operation. He too faced setbacks and retreated to deal with the further Japanese incursions into China.

As a result of the KMT's change of focus to the defence of China against Japanese expansionism, the Red Army was able to expand its area of control, eventually encompassing a population of 3 million. Mao proceeded with his land reform program. In November 1931 he announced the start of a "land verification project" which was expanded in June 1933.

 

In November 1931, Mao Zedong and the Central Soviet Central Bureau member photo(Right 2 Mao Zedong)

 

In 1934, Mao Zedong in Ruijin and guards photo

 

 

9, The Long March

Chiang viewed the Communists as a greater threat than the Japanese and returned to Jiangxi, where he initiated the fifth encirclement campaign, which involved the construction of a concrete and barbed wire "wall of fire" around the state, which was accompanied by aerial bombardment, to which Zhou's tactics proved ineffective. Trapped inside, morale among the Red Army dropped as food and medicine became scarce. The leadership decided to evacuate.

On October 14, 1934, the Red Army broke through the KMT line on the Jiangxi Soviet's south-west corner at Xinfeng with 85,000 soldiers and 15,000 party cadres and embarked on the "Long March". In order to make the escape, many of the wounded and the ill, as well as women and children, were left behind, defended by a group of guerrilla fighters whom the KMT massacred.

The 100,000 who escaped headed to southern Hunan, first crossing the Xiang River after heavy fighting, and then the Wu River, in Guizhou where they took Zunyi in January 1935. Temporarily resting in the city, they held a conference.

 

The Long March----Evacuation of ruijin (oil painting)             

 

The Long March----Battle of the xiangjiang river (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Break through the wujiang river (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Zunyi Meeting (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Grab the Loushanguan (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Through jinsha river (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Force dadu river (oil painting) 

 

The Long March----Taking luding bridge (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Climb Snow mountain (oil painting)  

 

The Long March----Across the grass (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Conquer Lazikou (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Occupied Wu qi zhen (oil painting)

 

The Long March----Arrived in northern Shaanxi (oil painting)

 

MAO zedong led the central red army long march road map (in Chinese)

 

MAO zedong led the central red army long march road map (in English)

 

 

10, Zunyi Conference

here, Mao was elected to a position of leadership, becoming the Politburo and de facto leader of both Party and Red Army, in part because his candidacy was supported by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. Insisting that they operate as a guerrilla force, he laid out a destination: the Shenshi Soviet in Shaanxi, Northern China, from where the Communists could focus on fighting the Japanese. Mao believed that in focusing on the anti-imperialist struggle, the Communists would earn the trust of the Chinese people, who in turn would renounce the KMT.

From Zunyi, Mao led his troops to Loushan Pass, where they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. Chiang flew into the area to lead his armies against Mao, but the Communists outmanoeuvred him and crossed the Jinsha River.

Faced with the more difficult task of crossing the Tatu River, they managed it by fighting a battle over the Luding Bridge in May, taking Luding.

Marching through the mountain ranges around Ma'anshan, in Western Szechuan, they encountered the 50,000-strong CPC Fourth Front Army of Zhang Guotao, and together proceeded to Maoerhkai and then Gansu. Zhang and Mao disagreed over what to do; the latter wished to proceed to Shaanxi, while Zhang wanted to retreat east to Tibet or Sikkim, far from the KMT threat. It was agreed that they would go their separate ways, with Zhu De joining Zhang.

Mao's forces proceeded north, through hundreds of miles of Grasslands, an area of quagmire where they were attacked by Manchu tribesman and where many soldiers succumbed to famine and disease.

Finally reaching Shaanxi, they fought off both the KMT and an Islamic cavalry militia before crossing the Min Mountains and Mount Liupan and reaching the Shenshi Soviet; only 7-8000 had survived.

The Long March cemented Mao's status as the dominant figure in the party. In November 1935, he was named chairman of the Military Commission. From this point onward, Mao was the Communist Party's undisputed leader, even though he would not become party chairman until 1943.

The Zunyi Conference, as the meeting became known, was a crucial turning point in Mao’s ascendancy to CCP leadership.

 

In January 1935, the Zunyi Meeting participants (first row from left to Mao)

 

Site of the zunyi Conference

 

Zunyi Meeting used tables and chairs

 

 

11, Arrived in Shanbei

Mao's troops arrived at the Yan'an Soviet during October 1935 and settled in Pao An, until spring 1936. While there, they developed links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs.

Mao now commanded 15,000 soldiers, boosted by the arrival of He Long's men from Hunan and the armies of Zhu Den and Zhang Guotao returned from Tibet.

In February 1936 they established the North West Anti-Japanese Red Army University in Yan'an, through which they trained increasing numbers of new recruits.

In January 1937 they began the "anti-Japanese expedition", that sent groups of guerrilla fighters into Japanese-controlled territory to undertake sporadic attacks.

In May 1937,MAO zedong at the national party conference. On May 3, as the task of the communist party of China in the Anti-Japanese War. On May 7 as "for millions to fight into the anti-japanese national united front" report.

 

In 1936, MAO zedong in shanbei baoan

 

In 1936, Mao Zedong and Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai in northern Shaanxi

 

In 1936, Mao Zedong and xu Teli in northern Shaanxi

 

In 1936, Mao Zedong and Zhu De in northern Shaanxi

 

In march 1937, MAO Zedong in Yan'an

 

 

12, Anti-Japanese Military and Political University

it was founded in 1931 in Ruijin, Jiangxi, was initially called China Red Army School and then extended to a college named China Red Army College  in 1933.

During the fifth counter-campaign against "encirclement and suppression" in 1934, the college relocated to Wayaobao Town of Anding County in northwest China's Shaanxi province, formed China Workers' and Peasants' Red Army School  by the merger of Shanbei Red Army School and later changed the name to Xibei Counter-Japanese University of the Red Army  in 1936. Zhou Kun was its president and Yuan Guoping was political commissar. On January 20, 1937, it was renamed "Counter-Japanese University of the Red Army" . Lin Biao was its president, Liu Bocheng was vice-president, and Mao Zedong was its chairman of the Board of Education. In March 1943, Xu Xiangqian succeed Lin Biao as the president. After the establishment of the Communist State, the university merged into PLA National Defence University.

 

On March 9, 1938, MAO zedong in the anti-japanese military and political university lectures

 

On November 13, 1938, MAO zedong in the anti-japanese military and political university report

 

On May 26, 1939, MAO zedong in the anti-japanese military and political university on the ceremony of the third anniversary of the speech

 

 

13, The anti-japanese national united front

Mao came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeat the Japanese, and that a Communist-led "government of national defence" should be formed with the KMT and other "bourgeois nationalist" elements to achieve this goal.

Although despising Chiang Kai-shek as a "traitor to the nation", on May 5 he telegrammed the Military Council of the Nanking National Government proposing a military alliance, a course of action advocated by Stalin.

Although Chiang intended to ignore Mao's message and continue the civil war, he was arrested by one of his own generals, Zhang Xueliang, in Xi'an, leading to the Xi'an Incident; Zhang forced Chiang to discuss the issue with the Communists, resulting in the formation of a United Front with concessions on both sides on December 25, 1937.

Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War.

The Japanese had taken both Shanghai and Nanking—resulting in the Nanking Massacre, an atrocity Mao never spoke of all his life—and was pushing the Kuomintang government inland to Chungking.

The Japanese's brutality led to increasing numbers of Chinese joining the fight, and the Red Army grew from 50,000 to 500,000. In August 1938, the Red Army formed the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army, which were nominally under the command of Chiang's National Revolutionary Army.

 

In May 1937, MAO zedong and the KMT central delegation head Tu Si Zong and others in yenan

 

In  April 1938, Mao Zedong in Yan'an cave made written "On Protracted War"

 

In April 17, 1938, Mao Zedong and General Wei Li huang in Yan'an

 

In March 1945, Mao Zedong meet Hurley, Zhang Zhizhong to Yan'an

 

 

14, Leadership yenan and the war of resistance

In August 1940, the Red Army initiated the Hundred Regiments Campaign, in which 400,000 troops attacked the Japanese simultaneously in five provinces. It was a military success, that resulted in the death of 20,000 Japanese, the disruption of railways and the loss of a coal mine.

From his base in Yan'an, Mao authored several texts for his troops, including Philosophy of Revolution, which offered an introduction to the Marxist theory of knowledge, Protracted Warfare, which dealt with guerilla and mobile military tactics, and New Democracy, which laid forward ideas for China's future.

 

 

In March 1942, Mao Zedong in Yan'an to cadres do report

 

In March 1943, Mao Zedong in Yan'an served as the Chairman of the Politburo

 

In 1944, Mao Zedong in Yan'an

 

In 1945, Mao Zedong in Yan'an

 

In July 1945, MAO zedong conference in yanan the shensi-kansu-ningsia border region training match

 

 

15, Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China

April 23, 1945 to June 11, the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in Yangjialing central auditorium victory, Mao attended and presided over the meeting.

April 23, Mao opening statement, entitled "two China's Destiny", pointing out that the party's task is to strive for a bright future full of bright and fate, against another dark future and destiny of darkness. April 24, Mao as "On Coalition Government" political report summarizes the total Chinese War of Resistance War bipartisan different route, review the general program and specific programs of the New Democratic Period. He made a report on the situation and the ideological and political work, conclusions and report later on to discuss political report on the elections approach. June 11, Mao made a presentation entitled "Foolish Old Man" in a closing statement. The General Assembly decided the party's political line adopted a new constitution, elected a new Central Committee headed by Mao Zedong.

June 12, Mao to attend the National Conference of CCP Bureau Standing Committee meeting. June 19, Mao to attend a Plenary Session of the Seventh CPC. He was elected to the Politburo, Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Committee. According to the Party Constitution adopted by seven, the Chairman of the Central Committee is the Chairman of the Politburo and Central Committee Chairman.

The General Assembly elected by the Central Committee, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Ren Bishi composed of five comrades, explicitly Mao Zedong Thought as the guiding ideology of the party all the work.

 

April 1945, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai in the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the podium

 

April 1945, Mao Zedong made an opening statement at the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China

 

On May 1945, Mao Zedong, Zhu De in the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the podium

 

In May 1945, Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party National Congress Seventh Kang Sheng in Yan'an

 

June 1945, Mao Zedong at the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China on the closing remarks "Foolish Old Man"